RCA clean
Piranha clean
DI-water flushing

High-temperature processes

Thermal oxidation dry, wet, HCl
Annealing inert, reducing, oxidizing, ambient and forming gas
Diffusion POCl3


Physical vapor deposition

Sputtering Ag, Al, Al-alloys, AlN, Au, Co, Cr, Cu, CuMn, CuTi, CuZr, Hf, Mo, Ni, NiMo, Si, Ta, TaN, Ti, TiN, TiO2, TiW, W, metallic glass, pyrex  
Ion beam sputter deposition Al, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Ru, Ta  
Electron beam evaporation Al, Co, Cu, Ni, Pd, Pt  

Chemical vapor deposition

Plasma enhanced CVD PETEOS-SiO2, SATEOS-SiO2, Si3N4, SixOyNz, SiCH, SiCOH, black diamond, diamond-like carbon, CNTs
Low-Pressure CVD SiO2, Si3N4, polysilicon, amorphous silicon, SWCNT/MWCNT
Metal-organic CVD Cu, TiN
CVD Parylene N, C, D, F, AF4

Atomic layer deposition

Metals Ni, Co, Cu
Metal oxides and nitrides Al2O3, CoxOy, CuxO, NiOx, TiO2, TaN, TiN

Electrochemical processes

Electrochemical deposition (ECD) Au, Cu, Ni, Pd, Sn, Au-Sn, Al (ionic liquids)  
Electroless deposition (ELD) Au, Ni  


Dielectrophoresis (DEP) selective placement of nanomaterials (e. g. CNTs, nanowires
Spin-on dielectrics, porous ULK


Electron beam lithography resolution: < 50 nm
Projection lithography 400 nm
Contact lithography 2 µm
Nano imprint lithography resolution: 50 nm
Spray coating  
Spin coating  
Plasma strip oxidizing, reducing


Wet processes    
  Metals Al, Au, Cr, Cu, Pt, Ti, W
  Non-metals AlN, CuxO, Si3N4, SiO2, Si, polysilicon, glass
Dry processes    
  Metals Al, Cr, Cu, Ti, Ta, TiW, W
  Non-metals Si, polysilicon, SiC, SiO2, Si3N4, silicides, TiN, resists, glass, low-k dielectrics
  Deep reactive ion etching Si
Gas phase etching of SiO2    
Assembly of CNTs    

Special processes for quantum dots (not within the standard clean room)

Thermal evaporation Al, Ag, Ca, MoOx, HMTPD, CBP, TPD, mCP, ZnPc, C60, LiF, spiroMeOTAD  

Chemical mechanical polishing and wafer thinning

CMP for patterning Al, Cu, Ge, Si, SiO2, W, barriers (TiN/Ti, TaN/Ta), ceramics (LiNbO3, LiTaO3), glass, isolators, stainless steel  
Planarization and surface finishing  
Grinding Si, glass, ceramics  
Spin etch Si, glass  

3D integration focused on MEMS

Through silicon vias    
  Integration concepts via last, via middle, vias for glass and silicon substrates
  Processes deep etching, isolation, metallization, lithography in holes
  Metallization metal-CVD, RDL, UBM, bumping (PVD, ECD, screen printing, aerosol jet printing)
Wafer thinning and handling Si, glass, ceramics
Temporary wafer bonding and debonding for thin wafer handling
Hybrid and vertical integration of MEMS/NEMS
Aerosol jet printing  

0 and 1st level packaging

Thin film encapsulation

Biocompatible packaging (Parylene (C, D, F)) incl. pre-treatment (silanization)    
High aspect ratio microstructures    

Wafer bonding (with or without interlayer)

Conventional, permanent wafer bonding
  Silicon fusion bonding RT ... 100 °C, 100 °C ... 200 °C, 200 °C ... 400 °C, > 400 °C, Si, borosilicate glass, foturan glass, quartz glass, LiTaO3, LTCC, stainless steel
  Anodic bonding RT ... 550 °C, 0.... 500 kPa, 0 ... 2000 V, Si, SiO2, Si3N4, borofloat, pyrex, SD2
  Glass frit bonding Si, glass
  Eutectic bonding Au-Si, Au-Sn, Al-Ge
  Thermo compression bonding Al-Al, Cu-Cu, Au-Au (nanoporous gold), plasma enhanced Cu-Cu bonding
  SLID bonding Au-In, Au-Sn, Cu-In, Cu-Sn
Low-temperature, permanent wafer bonding  
  Reactive bonding Si, Al2O3, Al, Cu, borosilicate glass, foturan glass, quartz glass, LiTaO3, covar, stainless steel
  Plasma activated bonding  
  Laser-assisted bonding glass-frit, glass-silicon
  Sintering Ag, Cu
Temporary wafer bonding
  Bonding and debonding thin wafer processing

Packaging of integrated circuits

Wire bonding  
  Al-Si 18, 32 µm
  Al 125, 250, 300 µm
  Au 25, 30, 50, 125 µm
  Cu 32 µm
Chip bonding   flip-chip, chip-to-chip (C2C), chip-to-wafer (C2W), multi-chip-module (MCM), chip-to-board (C2B), surface-mounting technology (SMT), printed contacts
Encasings and Caps   metal, glass, ceramics, plastics, thin film encapsulation (Parylene)

Laser micromachining – laser work station

Picosecond laser (10 W)   266 nm, 355 nm, 532 nm, 1064 nm, pulsed energy
Thulium fiber laser (20 W)   1908 nm, continuous wave
  Polymers PC, PMMA, PET, COC, acrylic resin, adhesive tapes (incl. cover sheets)
  Ceramics LiTaO3, Al2O3, LiNbO3, PZT
  Metals Al, Mo, Au, Pd, stainless steel
  Glass     borofloat, quartz, BK7, microscope slides
  Semiconductors Si (mono and polycrystalline), ITO
  Others solder, reactive foils, films with nanoparticles

Patterning based on printing

Inkjet   sheet-fed, web-fed
Aerosol jet   sheet-fed
Gravure   web-fed
Screen   sheet-fed, web-fed
Functionality formation by sintering thermal, IR, UV, laser, IPL, electrical, chemical, plasma
  Inks conductive inks: Ag, Cu, Au, C, Zn, ..., semiconductive inks (organic and oxide-based), dielectric inks (organic)
  Substrates polymer films (PET, PEN, PI, PC, PVC, PP, ...), paper (uncoated and coated), congurated cardboard, glass, ceramics, textiles, sheet metal, rubber

For your support, we operate the »Chemnitz Inkjet Technikum« offering the following research and development services:

  • Customer-tailored R&D projects
  • Ink printability verification
  • Initial printing tests (inkjet, gravure, screen)
  • Surface energy optimization of substrates
  • Ink and layer characterization
  • Consulting, workshops, lectures and hands on training